Quick links on minority issues in Latvia (mostly language and statelessness). Upd. 2021



  1. Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs. Naturalization statistics https://www.pmlp.gov.lv/en/naturalization (EN) https://www.pmlp.gov.lv/lv/naturalizacija (LV) Other population statistics, which includes distribution of population by nationality (pēc valstiskās piederības), by ethnicity (pēc nacionālā sastāva)& nationality, by year of birth (pēc dzimšanas gada) and nationality, by municipality (pašvaldībās)& ethnicity, by municipality & nationality https://www.pmlp.gov.lv/lv/iedzivotaju-registra-statistika-2020-gada (LV only)"Kopā"="Total"; "Latvietis"="[Ethnic] Latvian", "Krievs"="[Ethnic] Russian","Baltkrievs"="[Ethnic] Belarusian", "Ukrainis"="[Ethnic] Ukrainian", «Polis»=«[Ethnic] Pole», «Ebrejs»=«[Ethnic] Jew», «Latvijas pilsonis»'= «Citizen of Latvia», «Latvijas nepilsonis»= «Non-citizen [a particular local legal status] of Latvia»

  2. Central Statistical Bureau. 2011 census results — on languages in Latvia https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/census/search-in-theme/1442-home-latvian-spoken-62-latvian-population (press release); https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/census/tables/tsg11-08/resident-population-latvia-main-language-spoken-home (tables); https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/characteristics/search-in-theme/44-share-resident-population-riga-and-jurmala (maps of Riga and Jurmala cities). 2017 survey results on languages https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/search-in-theme/2747-latvian-mother-tongue-608-population-latvia

  3. Ministry of Education and Science (MES). Annual statistics on the number of general education schools by language of instruction (in Latvian) - see "pa plusmam". "Latviešu"="Latvian [language]"; "krievu"="Russian [language]" (145 schools); "poļu"="Polish [language]" https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/4093/download MES statistics on the number of pupils by language of instruction (in Latvian) - see "pa plusmam" at https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/4099/download Demand for Russian in tertiary education, shown by [then] linguistically free private sector in 2018. Pp. 71-73 https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/2137/download

  4. Citizenship Law - http://www.vvc.gov.lv/export/sites/default/docs/LRTA/Likumi/Citizenship_Law.doc . Its 1998-2013 version - http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UNTC/UNPAN018407.pdf

  5. Official Language Law - http://www.vvc.gov.lv/export/sites/default/docs/LRTA/Likumi/Official_Language_Law.doc (this law hasn't been amended since its adoption in 1999).

  6. Buzayev V. Legal and social situation of the Russian-speaking minority in Latvia. Riga: Averti-R, 2013. ISBN 978-9934-8245-1-7 http://www.russkije.lv/files/images/text/PDF_Files/Legal-and-social-situation.pdf NB In some places, there is a mistranslation - "nationality" is used, where "ethnicity" is needed. See pp. 8 and 13. Latvian Human Riughts Committee booklets: on statelessness http://lhrc.lv/biblioteka/StatelessnessLatviaV1.pdf and on minority schools being under attack http://lhrc.lv/biblioteka/MinorityschoolsLatviaV2.pdf (the latter booklet has been described as "tendentious" in the annual report of the State Security Service for 2019, https://vdd.gov.lv/en/?rt=documents&ac=download&id=55 see p. 22)

  7. ECRI reports on Latvia - https://www.coe.int/en/web/european-commission-against-racism-and-intolerance/latvia

  8. FCNM Advisory Committee opinions on Latvia - https://www.coe.int/en/web/minorities/latvia

  9. Latvia's declarations/reservations to FCNM - http://www.conventions.coe.int/treaty/Commun/ListeDeclarations.asp?PO=LAT&NT=157&MA=999&CV=1&NA=&CN=999&VL=1&CM=5&CL=ENG

  10. Declaration on Latvian Legionnaires in World War II (adopted by the Parliament in 1998; downplays the Holocaust; has never been cancelled, despite an opposition attempt to do so) http://www.nacionalaapvieniba.lv/valodas/declaration-on-latvian-legionnaires-in-world-war-ii/ (EN) https://www.nacionalaapvieniba.lv/valodas/%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%BA%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%8F-%D0%BE-%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8B%D1%88%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%85-%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B3%D0%B8%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%85-%D0%B2%D0%BE/ (RU)

  11. Education Law https://likumi.lv/ta/en/en/id/50759-education-law 2018 Amendments to the Law On Institutions of Higher Education (excerpts) http://minorities-latvia.info/2018/06/21/amendments-to-the-law-on-institutions-of-higher-education-excerpts-2018/ Cabinet regulation No. 716 of 21.11.2018 (on pre-schools; excerpts) http://minorities-latvia.info/2018/11/21/cabinet-regulation-no-716-of-21-11-2018-on-pre-schools-excerpts/ .

  12. Constitutional Court judgments on education (see laws above): http://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/wp-content/uploads/2004/08/2004-18-0106_Spriedums_ENG.pdf (2005, on restrictions of minority language use in public schools, see in particular para. 13, ignored in later CC case-law); https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2005/02/2005-02-0106_Spriedums_ENG.pdf (2005, on denial of co-funding to private minority schools); https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2018%2F07%2F2018-12-01-12.-Saeimas-dep_latvie%C5%A1u-valoda-valsts-skol%C4%81s_ENG.pdf (2019, on additional restrictions of minority language use in public schools; see in particular ignoring international human rights bodies' findings at para. 23.2); http://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Judgment-in-the-case-2018-22-01_EN-1.pdf (2019, on additional restrictions of minority language use in private schools); https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/web/viewer.html?file=/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/2019-12-01_Spriedums.pdf (2020, on restrictions of minority language use in private tertiary education; full judgment available in Latvian only yet; press-release in English at https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/en/press-release/norms-that-provide-that-the-language-of-instruction-in-study-programmes-of-private-institutions-of-higher-education-is-the-official-language-are-incompatible-with-article-112-and-article-113-of-the-s/ ); http://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/2019-20-03_Spriedums-1.pdf (2020, on restrictions of minority language use in kindergartens; see in particular ignoring international human rights bodies' findings at para. 18.3; full judgment available in Latvian only yet; press-release in English at https://www.satv.tiesa.gov.lv/en/press-release/the-norms-that-determine-the-language-of-instruction-in-pre-school-institutions-comply-with-the-satversme/ , excerpt translated at http://minorities-latvia.info/2020/06/19/constitutional-court-judgment-on-kindergartens-excerpts-2020/ )

  13. UN documents on human rights in Latvia https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Countries/ENACARegion/Pages/LVIndex.aspx OSCE documents on human rights in Latvia: by the Representative on Freedom of the Media https://www.osce.org/fom/statements?filters=+im_taxonomy_vid_5:(230)&solrsort=ds_date%20desc&rows=10 ; by the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights https://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/

  14. Declaration of the Intended Activities of the Cabinet of Ministers Headed by Krišjānis Kariņš (current, as at 2021) https://www.mk.gov.lv/sites/default/files/editor/declaration_of_the_intended_activities_of_the_cabinet_of_ministers.pdf See para. 160 on education language. Guidelines of National Identity, Civil Society and Society Integration Policy (2012-2018) https://www.km.gov.lv/uploads/ckeditor/files/Sabiedribas_integracija/Petijumi/En_Pamatnostad.pdf & https://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/?action=media.download&uuid=FC1EF2DD-DD7F-5A75-7E6F1CA7140E9CDA See the presentation as «non-citizens», often born in Latvia (see ACFC/SR/II(2012)002; p. 67), as «immigrants» at p. 6

International response to annual honouring SS (Riga) Реакция мира на ежегодное чествование CС в Риге

За какую «свободу» могли воевать Ваффен-СС? За то, чтобы Латвию сделать «judenfrei», «свободной от евреев»? Фото Д.Д. Жилина, Рига, 16.03.2016. What kind of “freedom” could Waffen SS fight for? Making Latvia “judenfrei”, “free from Jews”? Photo by Dmitry Zhilin, March 16 2016, Riga Par kādu «brīvību» karoja Waffen SS? Par to, lai padarītu Latviju «judenfrei», «brīvu no ebrejiem»? D. Žiļina foto, Rīga, 16.03.2016


Ежегодно в Риге 16 марта проходят шествия в честь ветеранов местного легиона Waffen SS. Эти шествия, поддерживаемые политиками входящего в правительство Национального объединения, подвергаются критике органов как Евросоюза, так и Совета Европы, и ООН (см. цитаты ниже). Но карают латвийские суды и клеймит Полиция безопасности... ненасильственно протестующих против них антифашистов (LV zemāk, EN below).

Ik gadu Rīgā 16. marta notiek gājieni par godu vietējā Waffen SS leģiona veterāniem. Šie gājieni, kurus atbalsta valdībā esošā Nacionālā apvienība, tiek kritizēti starptautiski - gan ES, gan ANO, gan Eiropas Padomes iestādēs (sk. citātus zemāk). Tomēr tieši tos antifašistus, kas pret gājieniem nevardarbīgi protestē, soda Latvijas tiesas un stigmatizē https://vdd.gov.lv/lv/noderigi/gada-parskati/vdd.gov.lv/lv/?rt=documents&ac=download&id=32 Drošības policija.

The annual marches of March the 16th in Riga, Latvia, honour veterans of the local Waffen SS legion. These marches, sponsored https://eng.lsm.lv/article/politics/politics/nationalist-party-wants-to-make-march-16-an-official-memorial-day.a270632/ by co-ruling National Alliance, are criticized by bodies of both EU, UN and the Council of Europe (see quotes below). However, those are the Anti-Fascists nonviolently opposing of the marches, who get punished http://defendinghistory.com/latvian-court-rules-that-depicting-nazi-violence-of-1941-on-a-placard-is-illegal/90473 by Latvian courts and stigmatized http://dp.gov.lv/en/?rt=documents&ac=download&id=33 by the Security Police

European Parliament resolution of 25 October 2018 on the rise of neo-fascist violence in Europe (2018/2869(RSP)) Резолюция Европарламента о росте неофашистского насилия в Европе от 25.10.2018 Eiroparlamenta 25.10.2018 rezolūcija par neofašistiskas vartdarbības pieaugumu Eiropā

“AC. whereas every year on 16 March thousands of people gather in Riga for Latvian Legion Day to honour Latvians who served in the Waffen-SS;” http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P8-TA-2018-0428+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN

ECRI Report on Latvia (fourth monitoring cycle) CRI(2012)3 ECRI ziņojums par Latviju (ceturtais posms) Доклад ЕКРИ о Латвии (четвертый цикл мониторинга)

86. Further, ECRI expresses concern as regards the authorisation of certain public events to commemorate two incidents and the authorities’ reaction in this connection. As concerns the first incident, every year, on 16 March, a gathering commemorating soldiers who fought in a Latvian unit of the Waffen SS is held in the centre of Riga. In this connection, ECRI regrets that, in spring 2010, an administrative district court overruled a decision of the Riga City Council prohibiting this march. Moreover, ECRI is concerned that the speaker of the Latvian Parliament allegedly publicly expressed regret for the formal prohibition of this event and that certain MPs have voted for the restoration of March 16 as day of remembrance . Further, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs did not condemn the march, stating, on the contrary, that there was nothing wrong with former soldiers gathering together privately to remember their fallen comradesin-arms and that any attempt to characterise this commemoration as the glorification of Nazism is unacceptable. ECRI understands that part of Latvian public opinion considers that: the legion did not fight for Nazism but to restore Latvian sovereignty (further to Soviet occupation); they did not commit atrocities against Jews; and that, although many individuals joined the legion willingly, many others were conscripted. However, ECRI cannot but express concern about any attempt to justify fighting in the Waffen SS and collaborating with the Nazis, as it risks fuelling racism, xenophobia, antisemitism and intolerance (..)

87. ECRI recommends that the Latvian authorities condemn all attempts to commemorate persons who fought in the Waffen SS and collaborated with the Nazis. ECRI further recommends that the authorities ban any gathering or march legitimising in any way Nazism. https://rm.coe.int/fourth-report-on-latvia/16808b58b6 (EN) https://rm.coe.int/fourt-report-on-latvia-latvian-translation-/16808b58b8 (LV)

ECRI Report on Latvia (fifth monitoring cycle) CRI(2019)1 ECRI ziņojums par Latviju (piektais posms) Доклад ЕКРИ о Латвии (пятый цикл мониторинга)

27. In its last report, ECRI expressed concern about the annual commemoration ceremonies on 16 March for soldiers who fought in the Latvian Legion of the Waffen SS.24 The authorities explained to ECRI that although they do not support this commemoration, they are unable to prevent it taking place, following court judgements in previous years which had overturned Riga City Council’s ban of the event. The authorities underlined that they remain vigilant and would intervene if any symbols of Nazism were shown during these events. While ECRI understands that the authorities cannot act contrary to court decisions, it emphasises the urgent need for high-level government officials to condemn such commemorations in the strongest possible way.25 In this context, ECRI is particularly concerned about the fact that Members of Parliament belonging to the National Alliance Party, which is part of the governing coalition, have been repeatedly observed attending these commemoration ceremonies.

28. ECRI reiterates its recommendation that the Latvian authorities condemn all attempts to commemorate persons who fought in the Waffen SS and collaborated with the Nazis. Furthermore, the government should call upon its coalition parties’ Members of Parliament to abstain from attending such commemoration ceremonies.

https://rm.coe.int/fifth-report-on-latvia/1680934a9f (EN)

UN Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, letter AL LVA 1/2013 ANO Speciālā ziņotāja par rasismu vēstule par ziņojumiem LVA 1/2013 Письмо № LVA 1/2013 о сообщениях Специального докладчика ООН по расизму

I am concerned by the public demonstrations that have been allowed by the authorities, the most recent on 16 March 2013, to glorify the Latvian veterans who fought with the Nazi armed forces. I am also concerned that the above mentioned draft law may contribute to legitimize such public demonstrations and that politicians who attend them may contribute to messages aimed at glorifying the Nazi past

https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=20023

International concerns and recommendations to Latvia on statelessness (upd. 2020). Part II

An older version, with quotes, is available at http://www.russkije.lv/files/images/text/PDF_Files/Legal-and-social-situation.pdf as Annex 3 (p. 167)




  1. European Committee of Social Rights (СоЕ treaty body), Conclusions XX-1(2012). Published January 2013 http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/Conclusions/State/LatviaXX1_en.pdf - see section on Artilce 1, Paragraph 2

  2. Commissioner for Human Rights (СоЕ), Governments should act in the best interest of stateless children 15.01.2013 http://www.coe.int/en/web/commissioner/-/governments-should-act-in-the-best-interest-of-stateless-childr-1?inheritRedirect=true

  3. Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt (UN). Addendum to the report to the Human Rights Council. Mission to Latvia A/HRC/23/37/Add.1 27.05.2013 http://www.undocs.org/A/HRC/23/37/Add.1 - see Para. 90(h)-(i)

  4. Committee against Torture (UN treaty body), Concluding observations CAT/C/LVA/CO/3-5 15.11.2013 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CAT%2fC%2fLVA%2fCO%2f3-5&Lang=en - see Para. 16

  5. Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities(СоЕ treaty body), Second Opinion on Latvia. ACFC/OP/II(2013)001 18.06.2013 https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=090000168008c1a1 - see Paras. 25, 52, 133, 134

  6. Human Rights Committee (UN treaty body), Concluding observationsCCPR/C/LVA/CO/3 25.03.2014 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR%2fC%2fLVA%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en - see Para. 7

  7. Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (СоЕ), Resolution CM/ResCMN(2014)9  09.07.2014  http://www.refworld.org/docid/53fdc8f20.html - see Paras. 1(b), 2

  8. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). Republic of Latvia: Parliamentary Elections 4 October 2014. OSCE/ODIHR Election Assessment Mission Final Report. 18.12.2014 http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/132416?download=true - see section XVI, Para. 5

  9. High Commissioner on National Minorities (OSCE). Statement to the 1026th Plenary Meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council, 20.11.2014. http://www.osce.org/pc/127063?download=true

  10. High Commissioner for Refugees (UN), Submission for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights for Human Rights Compilation Report - Universal Periodic Review: 2nd Cycle, 24th Session - Latvia. July 2015. http://uprdoc.ohchr.org/uprweb/downloadfile.aspx?filename=2430&file=EnglishTranslation - see p. 14

  11. Committee on the Rights of the Child (UN treaty body), Concluding observations CRC/C/LVA/CO/3-5 29.01.2016 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fLVA%2fCO%2f3-5&Lang=en - see para. 35

  12. Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (СоЕ), resolution 2099(2016) 04.03.2016 http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=22556&lang=en - see para. 12.1

  13. High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN), statement to the Human Rights Council's 31st session 10.03.2016 https://ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=17200&LangID=E

  14. European Committee of Social Rights (CoE) Conclusions 2016. Latvia. 09.12.2016
    http://hudoc.esc.coe.int/eng/?i=2016/def/LVA/1/2/EN - see Article 1 - Right to work. Paragraph 2.

  15. Commissioner for Human Rights (CoE). Report on visit to Latvia CommDH(2016)41 12.12.2016 https://rm.coe.int/ref/CommDH(2016)41 - see paras. 48, 83

  16. Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities (СоЕ treaty body), Third Opinion on Latvia. ACFC/OP/III(2018)001 23.02.2018 https://rm.coe.int/3rd-op-latvia-en/16808d891d

  17. Congress of Local and Regional Authorities (СоЕ), Recommendation 412(2018), 27.03.2018 https://search.coe.int/congress/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectId=090000168079cc18 - see para. 5 e) 

  18. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN treaty body). Concluding observations CERD/C/LVA/CO/6-12 23.08.2018 https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD%2fC%2fLVA%2fCO%2f6-12&Lang=en - see paras. 20-21

  19. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). Republic of Latvia: Parliamentary Elections 6 October 2018. ODIHR Election Assessment Mission Final Report. 17.01.2019 https://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/409344?download=true - see Section XV, para. 4

  20. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (СоЕ), Report on Latvia (fifth monitoring cycle) CRI(2019)1 Adopted 04.12.2018, public 05.03.2019 https://rm.coe.int/fifth-report-on-latvia/1680934a9f - paras. 55-60

  21. High Commissioner on National Minorities (OSCE). Statement to the 1229th Plenary Meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council, 23.05.2019. https://www.osce.org/permanent-council/420572?download=true

  22. Commissioner for Human Rights (CoE). Statement "Latvia takes important step toward eliminating child statelessness", 18.10.2019. https://www.coe.int/en/web/commissioner/-/latvia-takes-important-step-toward-eliminating-child-statelessness

  23. Committee against Torture (UN treaty body), Concluding observations CAT/C/LVA/CO/6 04-05.12.2019 https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CAT%2fC%2fLVA%2fCO%2f6 - paras. 3, 30-31

  24. European Committee of Social Rights (CoE) Conclusions XXI-4 (2019). Latvia. March 2020. https://rm.coe.int/rapport-lva-en/16809cfbc4 - see Article 17.  Para. 1

  25. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (UN treaty body). Concluding observations CEDAW/C/LVA/CO/4-7 10.03.2020 https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/LVA/CO/4-7 - see Paras. 4, 31-32

  26. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN treaty body). Follow-up letter CERD/101st session/FU/MJA/ks 24.09.2020 https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CERD/Shared%20Documents/LVA/INT_CERD_FUL_LVA_43389_E.pdf

International concerns and recommendations to Latvia on statelessness (upd. 2020). Part I



An older version, with quotes, is available at http://www.russkije.lv/files/images/text/PDF_Files/Legal-and-social-situation.pdf as Annex 3 (p. 167)


  1. Congress of Local and Regional Authorities (CoE). Recommendation 47(1998). 28.05.1998 https://search.coe.int/congress/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectId=09000016807195a6 - see Para. 9

  2. Interparliamentary Assembly of Member Nations (CIS), Appeal of the Council „On violation of human rights in the Republic of Latvia”. 14.06.1998 Unofficial English translation at http://lhrc.lv/arxiv/CIS_1998_LV_inEN.docx , Russian original at http://lhrc.lv/arxiv/SNG_1998_LV_inRu.docx

  3. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (СоЕ), Report on Latvia CRI(99)8. 13.03.1999 https://rm.coe.int/first-report-on-latvia/16808b58ad - see Paras. 12, 20

  4. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN treaty body). Concluding observations CERD/C/304/Add.79. (also found in A/54/18) 23.08.1999 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD/C/304/Add.79&Lang=En - see Paras. 12, 21, 23

  5. Committee on the Rights of the Child (UN treaty body), Concluding observations CRC/C/15/Add.142. 26.01.2001 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.142&Lang=en - see Para. 26

  6. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (СоЕ), Second Report on Latvia CRI(2002)21 14.12.2001 https://rm.coe.int/second-report-on-latvia/16808b58b0 - see Para. 34

  7. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). Republic of Latvia Saeima elections 5 October 2002 OSCE/ODIHR Final Report. 20.11.2002 http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/16249?download=true - see section XI, Para. 2

  8. Human Rights Committee (UN treaty body), CCPR/CO/79/LVA 05.11.2003 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR%2fCO%2f79%2fLVA&Lang=en - see. Paras. 16-18

  9. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN treaty body). Concluding observations CERD/C/63/CO/7 (also found in A/58/18) 21.08.2003 http://www.bayefsky.com//html/latvia_t4_cerd.php - see Paras. 12-13 (448-449)

  10. Committee against Torture (UN treaty body), Conclusions and recommendations CAT/C/CR/31/35 (in some versions found as CAT/C/CR/31/3) published 05.02.2004 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CAT%2fC%2fCR%2f31%2f3&Lang=en - see Para. 7(j)

  11. Commissioner for Human Rights (СоЕ), Report on visit to Latvia CommDH(2004)3 12.02.2004 https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=112881&Site=COE&BackColorInternet=DBDCF2&BackColorIntranet=FDC864&BackColorLogged=FDC864 - see Para. 135, subpara. 5

  12. European Parliament (EU). Resolution P5_TA(2004)0180 11.03.2004 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P5-TA-2004-0180+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN - see Para. 74

  13. OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (OSCE). Resolution on national minorities 05-09.07.2004 http://oscepa.org/documents/all-documents/annual-sessions/2004-edinburgh/declaration-11/232-edinburgh-declaration-eng/file - see Para. 16

  14. Committee on the Rights of the Child (UN treaty body), Concluding observations CRC/C/LVA/CO/2 28.06.2006 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/LVA/CO/2&Lang=En - see Para. 27

  15. Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (СоЕ), resolution 1527(2006) 17.11.2006 http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17491&lang=en - see Paras. 17.5-17.11

  16. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). Republic of Latvia: Parliamentary Elections 7 October 2006. OSCE/ODIHR Limited Election Observation Mission Final Report, 08.02.2007 http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/23954?download=true - see section XV, Para. 2

  17. Commissioner for Human Rights (СоЕ), Memorandum to the Latvian Government CommDH(2007)9 16.05.2007 https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1134279&Site=COE&BackColorInternet=DBDCF2&BackColorIntranet=FDC864&BackColorLogged=FDC864 - see Para. 43

  18. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (СоЕ), Third Report on Latvia CRI(2008)2 29.06.2007 https://rm.coe.int/third-report-on-latvia/16808b58b3 - see executive summary and Paras. 7, 117, 118, 132

  19. Committee on Economical, Social and Cultural Rights (UN treaty body), Concluding observations E/C.12/LVA/CO/1 07.01.2008 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E/C.12/LVA/CO/1&Lang=En - see Para. 37 

  20. Committee against Torture (UN treaty body), Conclusions and recommendations CAT/C/LVA/CO/2 19.02.2008 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CAT%2fC%2fLVA%2fCO%2f2&Lang=en - see Para. 19

  21. Special Rapporteur on Contemporary forms of racism (UN) Addendum on the mission to Latvia to the report to the Human Rights Council, A/HRC/7/19/Add.3 05.03.2008 https://www.refworld.org/docid/47e11c0f2.html - see Para. 88

  22. Advisory Committee on the FrameworkConvention for the protection of National Minorities (СоЕ treaty body), Opinion on Latvia ACFC/OP/I(2008)002 09.10.2008 http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/minorities/3_FCNMdocs/PDF_1st_OP_Latvia_en.pdf - see Paras. 181, 186, 187, 191, 207

  23. Congress of Local and Regional Authorities(СоЕ), Recommendation 257(2008) 03.12.2008 https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1366765&Site=Congress - see Para. 11(b)

  24. European Parliament (EU), Resolution on deliberations of the Committee on Petitions during the year 2008; 22.04.2009 http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.CE.2010.184.01.0012.01.ENG - see Para. 15

  25. High Commissioner for Refugees (UN), Submission for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights for Human Rights Compilation Report - Universal Periodic Review: Latvia. November 2010 http://www.refworld.org/country,,,,LVA,,4cd8f3992,0.html - see section "The Right to a Nationality", subsection Recommendations

  26. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). Latvia: Parliamentary Elections 2 October 2010. OSCE/ODIHR Limited Election Observation Mission Final Report. 10.12.2010 http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/74785?download=true - see section XV, Para. 1

  27. Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (СоЕ), Resolution CM/ResCMN(2011)6; 30.03.2011 http://www.refworld.org/docid/51de8e2a4.html - see Paras. 1(2), 1(6), 1(7)

  28. High Commissioner on National Minorities (OSCE). Statement to the 868th Plenary Meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council, 16.06.2011 http://www.osce.org/hcnm/78915?download=true

  29. Congress of Local and Regional Authorities (СоЕ), Recommendation 317(2011), 20.10.2011 https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1857271&Site=Congress - see Para. 5(f)

  30. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (СоЕ), Report on Latvia (fourth monitoring cycle). CRI(2012)3 09.12.2011 https://rm.coe.int/fourth-report-on-latvia/16808b58b6 - see Paras. 122, 125, 128, 132

  31. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). The Republic of Latvia: Early Parliamentary Elections 17 September 2011. OSCE/ODIHR Limited Election Observation Mission Final Report. 19.12.2011 http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/Latvia/86363?download=true - see section XIII, introduction and paras. 16-17

International concerns and recommendations to Latvia on language policy (upd. 2020). Part II



  1. European Committee of Social Rights (СоЕ treaty body); Conclusions XX-1 (2012) (Latvia); January 2013 http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/socialcharter/Conclusions/State/LatviaXX1_en.pdf - see part on Article 1, paragraph 2

  2. Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt (UN). Addendum to the report to the Human Rights Council. Mission to Latvia A/HRC/23/37/Add.1 27.05.2013 - see Para. 90(h)

  3. Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities (СоЕ treaty body), Second opinion on Latvia ACFC/OP/II(2013)001 Adopted 18.06.2013, public 03.01.2014 https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=090000168008c1a1 - see Paras. 24, 81, 88, 89, 93, 97, 101, 116, 117, 122, 133, 138, 141

  4. Committee against Torture (UN treaty body), Concluding observations CAT/C/LVA/CO/3-5 15.11.2013 - see Para. 16, 26

  5. Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (UN-ILO). Observation on Latvia under Convention No. 111. Adopted 2013, public 2014 http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3149590

  6. Human Rights Committee (UN treaty body), Concluding observationsCCPR/C/LVA/CO/3 25.03.2014 - see Paras. 7, 20

  7. Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (СоЕ), Resolution CM/ResCMN(2014)9   https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=2215943&Site=CM&BackColorInternet=C3C3C3&BackColorIntranet=EDB021&BackColorLogged=F5D383 - see Paras. 1, 2

  8. High Commissioner on National Minorities (OSCE). Statement to the 1026th Plenary Meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council; 20.11.2014 http://www.osce.org/pc/127063?download=true

  9. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). Republic of Latvia: Parliamentary Elections 4 October 2014. OSCE/ODIHR Election Assessment Mission Final Report. 18.12.2014 http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/132416?download=true  - see section XVI, Para. 10

  10. Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (UN-ILO). Observation on Latvia under Convention No. 111. Adopted 2014, public 2015   http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3192118

  11. European Committee of Social Rights (CoE) Conclusions 2016. Latvia. 09.12.2016 http://hudoc.esc.coe.int/eng/?i=2016/def/LVA/1/2/EN - see Article 1 - Right to work. Paragraph 2.

  12. Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (UN-ILO). Observation on Latvia under Convention No. 111. Adopted 2017, public 2018 http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3340488

  13. Three Special Rapporteurs (UN). Communication to Latvia. OL LVA 1/2018 26.01.2018 https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=23588

  14. Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities (СоЕ treaty body), Third Opinion on Latvia. ACFC/OP/III(2018)001 23.02.2018 https://rm.coe.int/3rd-op-latvia-en/16808d891d

  15. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN treaty body). Concluding observations CERD/C/LVA/CO/6-12 23.08.2018 https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD%2fC%2fLVA%2fCO%2f6-12&Lang=en - see paras. 16-17, 34

  16. Three Special Rapporteurs (UN). Communication to Latvia. OL LVA 3/2018 08.11.2018 https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=24168

  17. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). Republic of Latvia: Parliamentary Elections 6 October 2018. ODIHR Election Assessment Mission Final Report. 17.01.2019 https://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/409344?download=true - see Section XV, para. 10

  18. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (СоЕ), Report on Latvia (fifth monitoring cycle) CRI(2019)1 Adopted 04.12.2018, public 05.03.2019 https://rm.coe.int/fifth-report-on-latvia/1680934a9f - paras. 63, 80

  19. High Commissioner on National Minorities (OSCE). Statement to the 1229th Plenary Meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council, 23.05.2019. https://www.osce.org/permanent-council/420572?download=true

  20. Four Special Rapporteurs (UN). Communication to Latvia. OL LVA 1/2019 24.09.2019 https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=24863

  21. Commissioner for Human Rights (СоЕ), comment "Language policies should accommodate diversity, protect minority rights and defuse tensions". 29.10.2019 https://www.coe.int/en/web/commissioner/-/language-policies-should-accomodate-diversity-protect-minority-rights-and-defuse-tensions

  22. High Commissioner on National Minorities (OSCE). Letter to the Speaker of the Parliament of Latvia. 30.01.2020. https://titania.saeima.lv/LIVS13/saeimalivs13.nsf/0/C1C551C2C2ADCCF1C22585040051641D?OpenDocument (LV) (EN)

  23. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (UN treaty body). Concluding observations CEDAW/C/LVA/CO/4-7 10.03.2020 https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/LVA/CO/4-7 - see Paras. 33-34, 41-42

  24. Venice Commission (CoE). Opinion No. 975/2020. 18.06.2020

International concerns and recommendations to Latvia on language policy (upd. 2020). Part I

An older version, with quotes and one text not available online, is available at http://www.russkije.lv/files/images/text/PDF_Files/Legal-and-social-situation.pdf as Annex 4 (p. 177)




  1. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (СоЕ), Report on Latvia CRI(99)8. 13.03.1999 https://rm.coe.int/first-report-on-latvia/16808b58ad -  see Paras. 1, 16, 17, 21

  2. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN treaty body). Concluding observations CERD/C/304/Add.79. (also found in A/54/18) 23.08.1999 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD/C/304/Add.79&Lang=En - see Paras. 18, 26, 28

  3. High Commissioner on National Minorities (OSCE). Statement regarding the adoption of regulations implementing the Latvian State Language Law 31.08.2000 http://www.osce.org/hcnm/52843

  4. Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (СоЕ), resolution 1236; 23.01.2001 http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=16859&lang=en - see Para. 5.1-5.4

  5. Committee on the Rights of the Child (UN treaty body), Concluding observations CRC/C/15/Add.142. 26.01.2001 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2f15%2fAdd.142&Lang=en - see Paras. 51, 52

  6. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (СоЕ), Second Report on Latvia CRI(2002)21 14.12.2001 https://rm.coe.int/second-report-on-latvia/16808b58b0 - see the executive summary and Paras. 2, 14, 16-19, 21, 43-49, 61, 62, 66, 71, 72, 76

  7. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). Republic of Latvia Saeima elections 5 October 2002 OSCE/ODIHR Final Report. 20.11.2002 http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/16249?download=true - see section XI, Paras. 9, 10

  8. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (UN treaty body). Concluding observations CERD/C/63/CO/7 (also found in A/58/18) 21.08.2003 http://www.bayefsky.com//html/latvia_t4_cerd.php - see Paras. 9, 16, 17

  9. Human Rights Committee (UN treaty body), CCPR/CO/79/LVA 05.11.2003 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR%2fCO%2f79%2fLVA&Lang=en - see. Paras. 19, 20

  10. Commissioner for Human Rights (СоЕ), Report on visit to Latvia CommDH(2004)3 12.02.2004 https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=112881&Site=COE&BackColorInternet=DBDCF2&BackColorIntranet=FDC864&BackColorLogged=FDC864 - see Paras. 75, 84, 86, 97 and conclusions 7-9

  11. European Parliament (EU). Resolution P5_TA(2004)0180 11.03.2004 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P5-TA-2004-0180+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN - see Paras. 73, 74

  12. OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (OSCE). Resolution on national minorities 05-09.07.2004 http://oscepa.org/documents/all-documents/annual-sessions/2004-edinburgh/declaration-11/232-edinburgh-declaration-eng/file - see Paras. 14, 15

  13. Committee on the Rights of the Child (UN treaty body), Concluding observations CRC/C/LVA/CO/2 28.06.2006 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/LVA/CO/2&Lang=En - see Para. 19, 64

  14. Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (СоЕ), resolution 1527(2006) 17.11.2006 http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17491&lang=en - see Paras. 17.2, 17.3, 17.11

  15. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). Republic of Latvia: Parliamentary Elections 7 October 2006. OSCE/ODIHR Limited Election Observation Mission Final Report, 08.02.2007 http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/23954?download=true - see section XV, Para. 3

  16. Commissioner for Human Rights (СоЕ), Memorandum to the Latvian Government CommDH(2007)9 16.05.2007 https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1134279&Site=COE&BackColorInternet=DBDCF2&BackColorIntranet=FDC864&BackColorLogged=FDC864 - see Paras. 42, 44, 52 and recommendations 7-9

  17. Committee on Economical, Social and Cultural Rights (UN treaty body), Concluding observations E/C.12/LVA/CO/1 07.01.2008 http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=E/C.12/LVA/CO/1&Lang=En - see Para. 38

  18. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (СоЕ), Third Report on Latvia CRI(2008)2 29.06.2007 https://rm.coe.int/third-report-on-latvia/16808b58b3 - see the executive summary and Paras. 7, 16, 43, 55-57, 76, 125-127

  19. Special Rapporteur on Contemporary forms of racism (UN) Addendum on the mission to Latvia to the report to the Human Rights Council, A/HRC/7/19/Add.3 05.03.2008 https://www.refworld.org/docid/47e11c0f2.html - see Para. 89

  20. Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the protection of National Minorities(СоЕ treaty body), Opinion on Latvia ACFC/OP/I(2008)002 09.10.2008 http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/minorities/3_FCNMdocs/PDF_1st_OP_Latvia_en.pdf - see Paras. 187, 192-196, 198-200

  21. Congress of Local and Regional Authorities (СоЕ), Recommendation 257(2008) 03.12.2008 https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1366765&Site=Congress - see Para. 11 d)

  22. High Commissioner for Refugees (UN), Submission for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights for Human Rights Compilation Report - Universal Periodic Review: Latvia. November 2010 http://www.refworld.org/country,,,,LVA,,4cd8f3992,0.html - see section "The Right to a Nationality", subsection IV. Recommendations

  23. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). Latvia: Parliamentary Elections 2 October 2010. OSCE/ODIHR Limited Election Observation Mission Final Report. 10.12.2010 http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/latvia/74785?download=true - see section XV, Para. 7

  24. Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (UN-ILO). Observation on Latvia under Convention No. 111. Adopted 2010, public 2011 http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:2326146

  25. High Commissioner on National Minorities (OSCE). Statement to the 868th Plenary Meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council; 16.06.2011 http://www.osce.org/hcnm/78915?download=true

  26. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (СоЕ), Report on Latvia (fourth monitoring cycle) CRI(2012)3 Adopted 09.12.2011, public 21.02.2012 https://rm.coe.int/fourth-report-on-latvia/16808b58b6 - see the executive summary and Paras. 4, 39, 66, 67, 72, 74, 99, 122, 184

  27. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (OSCE). OSCE/ODIHR Limited Election Observation Mission Final Report: the Republic of Latvia: Early Parliamentary Elections 17 September 2011. 19.12.2011 http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/Latvia/86363?download=true - see section XIII, Paras. 4, 16

  28. Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (СоЕ), Resolution CM/ResCMN(2011)6; 30.03.2011 http://www.refworld.org/docid/51de8e2a4.html - see Paras. 1(3)-1(5), 1(7)

Набор полезных ссылок-аргументов для дискуссий по тематике русской школы



Борьба латышской интеллигенции в революцию 1905-1907 гг. за обучение на латышском языке - https://www.letonika.lv/groups/default.aspx?title=Tautskolot%C4%81ju%20kongress/32586 https://lv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vidzemes_un_Kurzemes_tautskolot%C4%81ju_I_kongress Документ, подтверждающий, что в то время единственным государственным языком был русский - http://www.hist.msu.ru/ER/Etext/apr1906.htm (см. статью 3)

Первая русская школа на территории нынешней Латвии - 1789 год http://www.russkije.lv/ru/journalism/read/pervye-russkie-shkoly/ (на русском) https://www.letonika.lv/groups/?title=Izgl%C4%ABt%C4%ABba%2F32406 (на латышском). Примечание — есть также отдельное упоминание о русской школе в Риге в 1765 году (газета «Rigische Anzeigen» за 19 декабря, см. на Фейсбуке aleksandra.jakovleva.967/posts/869073120599380 ). Также в ответ на некоторые «исторические» аргументы можно указывать на то, что первыми жителями территории нынешней Латвии были финно-угры, а не балты — стр. 5 на http://www.eiro.lv/files/upload/files/04%2005%20LI_brosura%20vesture%2012.04%20EN.pdf

Подборка законов Первой Латвийской Республики о преподавании на языках нацменьшинств - http://www.shtab.lv/main.php?w2=doc&id=203 (на латышском) http://www.russkije.lv/ru/journalism/read/rgrg/rgrg_dokumenti.html (на русском)

Гаагские рекомендации ОБСЕ, указывающие, что "12 (..) учебная программа в нaчaльной школе в идеале должна преподaвaться нa языке меньшинства (..) 13. Значительная часть учебной программы в средней школе должна преподaвaться нa языке меньшинства." - https://www.osce.org/ru/hcnm/32190?download=true (на русском) https://www.osce.org/lv/hcnm/32187?download=true (на латышском)

Пример Финляндии - обучение в вузах (государственных) на языке нацменьшинства, которое и в процентах, и в абсолютных числах меньше русских Латвии https://www.abo.fi/ & https://www.helsinki.fi/en

Пример России - школы не только на русском, но и на 24 иных языках: https://rm.coe.int/16806fd934 (на русском, стр. 91) https://rm.coe.int/16806fd935 (на английском, стр. 65)

Примеры унитарных стран Европы с одним госязыком, но со школами также и на языках меньшинств: Румыния https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungarians_in_Romania#Education Словакия https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungarians_in_Slovakia#Education_2 Италия (Конституция Южного Тироля: см. статью 19 — на русском) http://www.provincia.bz.it/news/de/publikationen.asp?publ_action=300&publ_image_id=18080

Определение сегрегации, принятое Советом Европы (разъясняет, что запрещенная сегрегация - это про принудительное разделение, а не про свободу выбора) - пункт 16 Пояснительного меморандума. В русской версии - стр. 16 на https://rm.coe.int/ecri-general-policy-recommendation-no-7-revised-on-national-legislatio/16808b5ab7 В латышской - стр. 13 на https://rm.coe.int/ecri-general-policy-recommendation-no-7-revised-on-national-legislatio/16808b5ab4

Данные переписи 2011 года, по которой более 37 % населения Латвии и большинство рижан - русскоязычные (по домашнему языку): https://rus.postimees.ee/2087810/na-russkom-yazyke-doma-razgovarivayut-pochti-38-procentov-zhiteley-latvii (на русском) https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/census/search-in-theme/1442-home-latvian-spoken-62-latvian-population (на английском) https://www.tvnet.lv/5294880/latviesu-valoda-majas-runa-62-latvijas-iedzivotaju (на латышском)

Опрос ЦСУ 2017 года с двумя отдельными вопросам. О РОДНОМ языке (сопоставимо с вопросом переписи-2000). Латышский - 60,1 %, русский - 36,0 % . О ДОМАШНЕМ языке (сопоставимо с вопросом переписи-2011). Латышский 61,3 %, русский 37,7 % https://www.csb.gov.lv/lv/statistika/statistikas-temas/iedzivotaji/meklet-tema/2747-608-latvijas-iedzivotaju-dzimta-valoda-ir-latviesu & https://www.csb.gov.lv/lv/statistika/statistikas-temas/iedzivotaji/iedzivotaju-raditaji/galvenie-raditaji/valodu-zinasanas-un-valodu-lietojums (лат.) http://www.smartlatvia.lv/csu-pro-latyshskij-i-russkij-jazyk/ (рус.) https://www.csb.gov.lv/en/statistics/statistics-by-theme/population/search-in-theme/2747-latvian-mother-tongue-608-population-latvia (анг.)

Инфографика с национальным составом населения Латвии https://www.csb.gov.lv/lv/statistika/statistikas-temas/iedzivotaji/iedzivotaju-raditaji/meklet-tema/361-pastavigo-iedzivotaju-etniskais-sastavs и таблица по районам Риги http://data1.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/en/iedz/iedz__tautassk__riga__tsk2011/TSG11-R04.px/table/tableViewLayout1/?rxid=1aef2073-ec8c-4032-aa22-f13bbb311050 Языки по Риге и Юрмале https://www.csb.gov.lv/lv/statistika/statistikas-temas/iedzivotaji/iedzivotaju-raditaji/meklet-tema/44-pastavigo-iedzivotaju-ipatsvars-riga-un

Обзор нынешней "реформы" https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4_%D1%88%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BB_%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%86%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%8C%D1%88%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2_%D0%BD%D0%B0_%D0%BB%D0%B0%D1%82%D1%8B%D1%88%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D1%8F%D0%B7%D1%8B%D0%BA_(%D0%9B%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%8F)

Критика экспертами ООН нынешней "реформы": https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CERD/Shared%20Documents/LVA/CERD_C_LVA_CO_6-12_32235_E.pdf (на английском, см. пкт. 16-17) и https://spcommreports.ohchr.org/TMResultsBase/DownLoadPublicCommunicationFile?gId=23588 (на английском). Оценка предыдущих аналогичных поползновений комиссаром Совета Европы по правам человека https://www.lsm.lv/raksts/zinas/latvija/ep-cilvektiesibu-komisars-krievija-nepamatoti-parmet-latvijai-cilvektiesibu-neieverosanu.a107347/ (лат.) https://rus.lsm.lv/statja/novosti/politika/evrokomissar-upreki-rossii-v-adres-latvii-o-narushenijah-prav-cheloveka-neobosnovanni.a107379/ (рус.)

Обещания Народного фронта Латвии обеспечить образование на родных языках https://www.historia.lv/dokumenti/latvijas-tautas-frontes-velesanu-platforma-1990gada-augstakas-padomes-velesanam-3219901 (на латышском) https://imhoclub.lv/ru/material/snachala-nuzhno-ustranit-lozh (на русском). См. тж. пкт. 8.4. программы НФЛ 1989 г. на https://web.archive.org/web/20150402113522/http://www.tuvari.com/uploads/ltfii.pdf (лат.)

Статистика числа школ (вкладка "pa plūsmām"), показывающая, что русские школы закрывают опережающими темпами https://izm.gov.lv/images/statistika/izglitiba/2018_2019/VS_skolu_sk_18.xlsx & https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/4093/download

2018/2019. Число учащихся (полностью или частично) на языках меньшинств: 54,718 - русский язык, 1232 - польский, 243 - украинский, 154 - белорусский, 11 - немецкий. https://izm.gov.lv/images/statistika/izglitiba/2018_2019/VS_plusmas_tipiem_18.xlsx 2019/2020 https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/4099/download

Латвийский МИД признает, что русские, поляки, евреи и др. - исторические меньшинства - см. параграф 18. Лат. - https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=09000016806c72e6  Анг. - https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=09000016806c72e5 Латвийское государство признает, что латышский язык - отнюдь не единственный в стране. Лат. http://www.vvk.lv/doc_upl/Valodas_Latvijaa_LV.pdf Рус. http://www.vvk.lv/doc_upl/Valodas_Latvijaa_RUS.pdf

О спросе на русский язык в частных вузах - стр. 71-73 https://www.izm.gov.lv/lv/media/2137/download

Про владение латышским среди нелатышей. На русском http://rus.delfi.lv/news/daily/latvia/issledovanie-latyshskij-yazyk-znayut-90-nelatyshej.d?id=48006099 и на латышском http://www.delfi.lv/news/national/politics/latviesu-valodu-prot-apmeram-90-valsti-dzivojoso-cittautiesu.d?id=48006013 + более свежие данные. Уже 94 % нелатышей владеет латышским. См. на латышском https://sputniknewslv.com/Latvia/20181123/10112039/Mazakumtautibas-latvija-latviesu-valodas-zinasanas-nepietiekamas.html и на русском https://rus.lsm.lv/statja/novosti/politika/okolo-94-predstaviteley-nacmenshinstv-v-latvii-vladeyut-latishskim-jazikom.a300565/ И, наконец, данные 2020 года (на рус., анг. и лат.) — 99 % русскоязычных сообщают, что владеют латышским. Правда, тут возрастные группы только от 18 до 75 лет. https://spektr.press/net-dlya-nih-predlozheniya-73-russkoyazychnyh-latvii-razdelyayut-evropejskie-cennosti-no-hotyat-sohranit-russkij-yazyk-i-kulturu/ Также данный опрос показывает, что подавляющее большинство русскоязычных во всех возрастных группах - за право учиться на родном языке.

Значительная часть неграждан - 4,7 % населения Латвии - родились в Латвии на начало 2019 года https://www.csb.gov.lv/lv/statistika/statistikas-temas/iedzivotaji/iedzivotaju-raditaji/meklet-tema/474-latvija-dzimuso-latvijas-nepilsonu Всего в тот год неграждане составляли 10,7 % населения https://data.csb.gov.lv/pxweb/lv/iedz/iedz__iedzrakst/IRG109.px На 2020 год 45 % неграждан - уроженцы Латвии https://www.csb.gov.lv/lv/statistika/statistikas-temas/iedzivotaji/iedzivotaju-raditaji/tabulas/irg140/iedzivotaju-skaits-pec-valstiskas

И, наконец, ссылки на три подборки на моей страничке. О пользе образования на родном языке https://www.facebook.com/aleksandr.kuzmin.73594/posts/1737300926332296 (рус.)
https://www.facebook.com/aleksandr.kuzmin.73594/posts/1739332309462491 (лат.) История латышских школ за рубежом https://www.facebook.com/aleksandr.kuzmin.73594/posts/1709759845753071 (рус.) https://www.facebook.com/aleksandr.kuzmin.73594/posts/1709652369097152 (лат.) И о распространенности школ на языках нацменьшинств в Западной Европе https://www.facebook.com/aleksandr.kuzmin.73594/posts/1532797590115965

Права человека в Латвии: апрель 2013 года

1 апрелявступили в силу обширные изменения в Уголовном законе. Основное направление реформы – сокращение сроков лишения свободы. Ряд деяний декриминализован, в том числе – повторная дискриминация без отягчающих обстоятельств (ранее за нее предусматривалось наказание до 30 минимальных месячных окладов; максимальное наказание за дискриминацию с отягчающими обстоятельствами снижено с 2 до 1 года лишения свободы). Отменена конфискация всего (не включенного в исключения) имущества как самостоятельное наказание. Предполагается, что в результате реформы средний срок применяемого лишения свободы снизится с шести лет до четырех. На 2012 год Латвия по коэффициенту инкарцерации занимала второе место в ЕС, вслед за Литвой

3 апреля Рижский окружной суд частично удовлетворил иск руководителей Национального объединения к евродепутату А. Мирскому, который назвал НО нацистами (суд первой инстанции ранее иск отклонил).

5 апреля – Конституционный суд принял решение о требовании Айзпутской краевой думы к собственникам недвижимости вырабатывать детальную планировку территории перед строительством или реконструкцией крупной фермы. Требование признано соответствующим статье 105 Конституции (о праве на собственность).

9 апреля – Конституционный суд по заявлению группы депутатов парламента принял решение по делу об ограничении возможности «новых» пациентов выбирать лекарства, часть платы за которые компенсирует государство. Ограничение признано соответствующим статьям 91 (равенство и запрет дискриминации) и 111 (право на минимум медицинской помощи) Конституции.

10 апреля – спикеру Сейма передано более 100 000 подписей под обращением с призывом восстановить индексацию пенсий.

10 апреляЮНИСЕФ опубликовал сравнительный обзор благополучия детей в 29 развитых странах по 26 показателям за 2009-2010 гг. Латвия оказалась на 28-м месте.

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Латвийский комитет по правам человека в первом квартале 2013 года (+ EN, LV)

11 января – благодаря выигранному в прошлом году А. С. Димитровым делу впервые в современной Латвии выдан паспорт с записью об отчестве.

21-24 января – Л. И. Райхман участвует в Первой тематической конференции Европейского года граждан «Making the most of the European Year of Citizens» (Брюссель).

12 марта – Конституционный суд возбудил дело по заявлению Департамента по административным делам Сената Верховного суда о соответствии статей 23 и 23-1  закона «О народном голосовании, инициировании законов и Европейской гражданской инициативе» ст. 1 Конституции. Заявление подано, приостановив рассмотрение дела об отказе ЦИК собирать подписи за поправки к Закону о гражданстве. Заявителей в деле в ВС представляет А. С. Димитров.

20 марта – А. С. Димитров выступает в дискуссии о правах человека в Рижской юридической высшей школе.

22 марта – презентована книга В. В. Бузаева «Правовое положение русскоговорящего меньшинства в Латвии».

Интервью с членами комитета и публикации о нашей деятельности выходили как на телевидении (ПБК, PRO100TV, TV5), так и на Латвийском радио-4, а также в журнале «Балтийский мир», газетах «Вести сегодня» (см. также), «Вести», «МК-Латвия».

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Права человека в Латвии: март 2013 года

1 марта – Конституционный суд вынес решение о ряде норм Закона о кредитных учреждениях. Дело заведено по жалобе группы вкладчиков АО «Latvijas Krājbanka» (разорился в 2011 году). Суд счел, что положения, которые не предусматривают участия кредиторов в принятии решения о применении  к банку процедуры банкротства и ограничивают их участие в принятии решения о санации банка, соответствуют статье 105 (право на собственность) Конституции.

4 марта – Рижский окружной суд частично удовлетворил иск жертвы изнасилования, чье имя было опубликовано в книге известного адвоката А. Грутупса, взыскав компенсацию (4000 латов, или около 5700 евро) с автора книги, но не с издателя.

4 марта – опубликовано решение Сената Верховного суда, оставляющее в силе приговор Рижского окружного суда о взыскании 1000 латов (около 1400 евро) с журнала Kas jauns. Иск против журнала подала юрист, чье изображение было на опубликованных в журнале снимках с крестин другого лица.

4 марта – Административный окружной суд отклонил заявление лидера партии «За родной язык» В. Линдермана о допуске к экзаменам по натурализации, удовлетворив апелляционную жалобу Управления по делам гражданства и миграции. Подход окружного суда означает, что претенденты на натурализацию обязаны прожить в Латвии последние пять лет до подачи заявления без перерыва.

4 марта – Конституционный суд возбудил дело по заявлению группы депутатов Сейма  о соответствии ст. 22 (в редакции, которая должна вступить в силу с 2015 года) и пкт. 4 и 5 Переходных правил закона «О народном голосовании, инициировании законов и Европейской гражданской инициативе» ст. 1 и 2 Конституции. Оспоренные нормы усложняют процесс подачи народных законодательных инициатив.  

5 и 9 марта – в преддверии муниципальных выборов две из трех правящих партий («Единство» и Национальное объединение) призывают перевести все муниципальные детсады на обучение только на латышском языке. 

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